I'm on my way to having this resolved. I got the car up on a lift at a Tuffy repair shop near my home and we looked at the damage. It was not as bad as I had feared.
There are four panels covering most of the bottom of the car. The two toward the front are a hard plastic, while the two toward the back are a type of fiberboard. You can see them all here:
https://nemigaparts.com/cat_spares/etka ... 4u/825000/
After the service department at my local dealer said they were not allowed (by VW) to work on an e-Golf, I decided to try the parts department anyway. They were quite happy to look up the parts and order them for me. In my case, the damaged parts are the two fiberboard covers numbered 20 and 29 in the diagram above. They should be here in a couple of weeks. They simply attach with screws, so I could do them myself, but I can't get at them, so Tuffy will be installing them for me. If there are any complications, I'll report back.
The first person I talked to a few days ago at the VW dealer's service department was whoever answered the phone. When I challenged his statement that they could not work on an e-Golf, he went to the service manager who confirmed that. I'm pretty sure neither of them is incompetent or an idiot. Because the e-Golf was never sold by dealers in Michigan, I had fully expected that they would not be able to work on the power train, but hoped that they could do other work. No such luck.
Interestingly, when I recounted this part of the story to the guy at Tuffy, he had run into this same issue when he previously worked in the service department at a Chrysler (FCA) dealer here in Michigan. A customer came in wanting service on an electric Fiat 500e, which had been sold only in California and Oregon from 2013 to 2019, much like the situation for the e-Golf. The dealer did perform service on gasoline-powered Fiat 500's, but had to tell the customer that they were not authorized to work on the electric one.