An update: Tesla pushed new firmware, 23.24.4-11ab530, to my Tesla Universal Wall Connector (TUWC). With it I needed to re-commission the unit, go to the Access Controls page and select a new option "Compatibility Mode" (before, the only non-Tesla option was "All Vehicles," which remains an option on the new page). Upon selecting the "Compatibility Mode," there is a warning that not all functions may be available under this option, though there is no explanation of what these may be.
Once set up this way, it appears now that everything is working for my VW e-Golf. I noticed a change immediately upon plugging in, with the usual indications by the e-Golf charge port LEDS that communication was occurring (this did not happen before with other firmware versions for the TUWC). It appears as if I can now charge immediately as well as via timed events, including both the Scheduled Charging set in the Tesla app and as set by departure times in the e-Golf's e-manager.
I will report back if there are any remaining issues, but hopefully my problems are solved!